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Biogas Plants

During the history of mankind, human’s relationship with the environment has always been following his behavior with his natural surroundings. Advances in technology and its non-compliance with the environment, changes in human civilizations in different eras, and ignoring the right relations between human needs and the environment has faced the lives of all beings on earth with more complicated issues.

Increasing global population and the high dependence of human kind on energy to do daily activities raises the demand for energy. On the other hand, rapid decrease of common energy sources across the world, pollution resulting of the consumption of fossil fuels, production of great volume of pollutants and wastes and lack of management and supervision of their disposal has become a new problem for people.

Nowadays, utilization of biogas technology in macro and micro scales, as a prospering approach in organic waste development and management plans in urban and rural areas is of great concern. Biogas, as a source of renewable energy, has significant social and economic interests and has an outstanding role in solving environmental problems resulting from pollutants and organic wastes in human societies. One of the problems dairy farmers are involved with, is to control livestock waste to decrease the annoying smell and other remnants causing environmental problems.

Biogas can help us to overcome the afore-mentioned problems and its environmental benefits include control of the annoying smell, improvement of air and water quality, improvement of nutritional value of the output manure, decrease of green gas emissions, and having biogas as a source of energy. Utilization of biogas has attracted a lot of attention in heat and power plants to produce energy, due to its economic, social and environmental benefits. Producing biogas by anaerobic digestion and its application in CHP plants in Iran can help the country to not only supply a part of required energy, but also enable the nation to step into a stable development stage.

Biogas installations can be used for different applications, as below:

          Waste sludge in waste water treatment plants

          Livestock and poultry wastes, including manure, feed and agricultural wastes

          Organic materials of civil wastes

          Wastes from slaughterhouses


Biogas can be converted into following forms of energy, under special procedures:

Electricity: Biogas can be converted to electricity to be used in the network, by combusting process in CHP

Heat: In addition to generation of electricity in CHP, produced heat has also vast applications in industries and residential areas.

Methane: Methane can be converted to a high-quality natural gas to be inserted in the gas distribution network by applying special methods.

In addition to power and heat generation, biogas can be inserted into the local gas distribution network as natural gas, which is a futuristic and beneficial approach toward a source of energy, compatible with the natural environment. The other by-product of biogas is the valuable manure produced in the plant, to be sold out and used in the agricultural section.

Biomethane refinery requires a high technology in terms of installations. High level of automation, precise control systems for installations to control the production process and remote maintenance methods are vital in these plants. Moreover, compliance to environmental conditions of where the plant is going to be installed is of great importance.


Followings are some of the unique features of installations:

          Long life span

          Special designing and manufacturing, based on the contractor’s condition

          Appropriate process for all kinds of organic materials

          High performance installations with the lowest maintenance and repair costs 

          High quality technology

          Production of electricity, heat and manure



Solar Energy

Development of industrial societies and increasing demand of energy, limits and heterogeneous distribution of fossil energy sources (oil, gas, coal), environmental worries of overuse of fossil fuels and diffusion of greenhouse gases as a consequence of burning fuels have made people think of replacements for energies, whose prominent characteristics are their purity, availability and renewability.

Solar energy is the one and among the most important types of renewable energies. The amount of sun shine varies throughout the globe and has the highest rate in earth’s solar belt. Iran is also situated in a region of high shines and studies prove the functionality of solar equipment in Iran, which can supply part of the required energy of the whole country.

Iran is considered among the countries with high potentials for solar energy, with 300 sunny days, and average shine of 4.5 to 5.5 Kw/m2. Some experts have stepped further and have claimed that Iran can also supply and export part of the energy to the region, if its desert area is equipped with solar energy panels. Studies by DLR show that it is possible to install more than 60,000 MW of solar plants in an area of around 2,000 Km2 in Iran. In case an area of 100 x 100 km2 is equipped with photovoltaic solar plants, the energy produced will be equal to the total rate of power production in 2010.

Considering the negative and irrevocable side effects of fossil fuels, promoting and developing renewable energies will be a necessity in the future. Although the technology of producing renewable energies is more expensive than that of other sources, lower environmental and social side effects cover extra expenses.

During the past two decades, scientists and researchers have done feasibility studies in civil, commercial and industrial sections and industrial countries like Japan and Germany have been looking for replacement types of energies, like solar energy for power generation, since it is available and natural. Japan started using photovoltaic energy for power generation in early 1990 and Germany followed afterwards. Recently China has also taken action to develop the capacity of solar energy and to decrease costs of power generation, as a consequence.  

One of the varieties of solar energy is photovoltaic. Photovoltaics or solar cells are electrical equipment to directly convert sunlight to electricity. Photovoltaic effect exists when two different semi-conductive material (silicone and germanium) are adjacent to each other and produce an electrical flow in sunlight.   

Nowadays, PV is a technology to produce renewable energies, is rapidly growing and is expected to play the main role in power generation (from different sources) in the world in the future. Solar PV systems are among the best to produce renewable energies, in a way that projects are attracting small businesses in order to fix the price for electrical power.  

In spite of common coal, oil, gas and nuclear power plants, solar PV needs no fuels and includes almost low maintenance and operation costs. In this way, PV can avoid the increase in the price of fossil fuels.

Though the electrical power generated by PV is variable, it complies well with the peak of inquiry in summer time, when cooling systems are working, and also throughout the whole year for hot countries.

At the moment, PV is a comprehensive and stabilized technology, which is rapidly growing to access global markets, and the number of markets will grow by constantly decreasing the costs. It is a highly secure source of renewable energy, which is not affected by fluctuations of fuels’ price.

Processing and Production Line for Pelleted and Granular Fertilizers

Organic fertilizers are those with plant or animal origins. Organic fertilizers have lower percentage of nutrients, in comparison with mineral or chemical ones, but usually provide acceptable amounts of nutritional requirements for trees. In addition to main elements (N, P, and K), organic fertilizers consist of micro elements (Ferrous, Zinc, Copper…). Nowadays, mass residue of traditional and industrial poultry farms is a serious problem for their owners and they are very willing to sell the residue to organic fertilizer producing plants. Accumulation of these materials gradually leads to severe pollution of air, soil and water. Enriched organic fertilizers have numerous advantages as below:

1)    They can be replaced by mineral fertilizers to a high extent and as mineral fertilizers have high prices, utilizing organic fertilizers reduces the costs.

2)    In these fertilizers it is possible to change the percentage of macro and micro elements arbitrarily. In other words, based on nutritional requirements of various areas, different formulas (containing desired percentages of macro and micro elements) can be produced.

3)    In accordance with soil and water conditions, it is possible to add useful biological materials, like bacteria (Thiobacillus), fungi and useful microorganisms, to these types of fertilizers to improve soil characteristics and optimum absorption.

4)    In contrast to most of the chemical fertilizers, the organic ones have more sustainability in soil and sometimes can be effective up to 2 to 3 years.

Nowadays, compost is described as a substitute for chemical fertilizers which have disadvantages for human health and also for agricultural fields. However, there are some problems in providing this kind of fertilizer for farms, like transportation (in big volumes), high moisture, distribution in farm, dust and storage. Pelleting and granulation, as compression solutions, are proposed to solve these problems.

When raw materials are changed to compost, fertilizers are provided in special shapes package, based on the consumption market. So, it is essential to utilize granular or pellet production line in order to transform fertilizer into granules or pellets.

Usually three shapes of fertilizers are used throughout the world:

a)    Powder fertilizers

b)    Granular fertilizers

c)    Pellet fertilizers

Powder Fertilizers

In order to produce this kind of fertilizer, raw materials are grinded and combined in definite proportions and then are mixed and packed in different packages based on the consumption market.


Granular Fertilizers

This type of fertilizer is circular (like a ball) and is popular among consumers due to its easy application in agricultural and horticultural sections. It is also possible to distribute these fertilizers in farms by spreaders and seeders. In order to produce granular fertilizer, its production line is required.

Pellet Fertilizers

This type of fertilizer is in cylindrical (tubular) shape. Material compression of pellet fertilizers is more than granular ones and in Iran, gardeners use more of this type of fertilizers.

Specifications of granular or pellet fertilizer processing lines:

1)    Transforming compost into granulated or granular fertilizers

2)    Possibility of fertilizer enrichment with additives required in an area

3)    Mechanized processing of compost to granular fertilizer packages

4)    Low investment costs

5)    Outstanding added value for compost due to price difference with granular fertilizers

6)    After-sales services and supply of spare parts

Waste and Municipal Solid Waste Separation Lines

Waste sorting or classification is the process, by which waste is separated into different elements. Sorting may be done manually in houses and collected through collection systems or be done automatically in materials recovery facilities or biological installations. Hand separation was the first method used in the history of waste sorting. Also sorting may be done at civic amenity sites.

All solid waste materials (putrescible and non- putrescible), produced in houses, centers for supplying, distributing and selling food, industrial, commercial and agricultural institutes, hospitals and health care centers are called waste. In addition to environment pollution, large amount of our renewable resources is lost by throwing away these wastes. Nowadays, recycling industry is one of the approaches for creating added value and increasing efficiency in society.

Waste sorting means dividing waste into dry and wet types. Dry waste includes wood and related products, metals and glass. Wet wastes can also be divided to biodegradable and non-biodegradable ones.

Objectives of Recycling Waste and Producing Compost

·         Improving wastes’ storage, collection and recycling method

·         Purifying dry wastes (artificial materials) for their optimum recycling and recovery to production cycle

·         Preventing national capitals’ loss and contributing to macroeconomics of the country

·         Minimizing waste landfill and its elimination in future

·         Improving the quality of municipal services

·         Protecting the environment and avoiding the production and emission of pollutants

·         Improving public culture with regard to waste materials

Mapta Company is representing European companies, and is relying on its manufacturing capability for designing and producing mechanized and semi-mechanized lines for municipal waste separation and is able to implement waste separation turnkey EPC projects.

These lines have minimum energy consumption and labor force and maximum efficiency.  

Waste Water Treatment System -Livestock Dairy Farms

Traditional dairy farms were rapidly replaced by modern industrial ones by approaching the technology era and by increasing demand on food for growing population of the world. This industry has turned into one of the most important and profitable ones throughout the globe.

Our country has been no exception either and developments in livestock productions, in comparison to other countries, justify the fact. However, like other industries, the production procedure produces some waste material whose disposal, in accordance with regulations of Iran Environmental Organization, is among the main concerns of producers.

One of these waste materials is the slurry in dairy farms. In order to design an efficient waste water treatment system, it is of primary importance to check the place where water is used and the wastewater is produced in each section. Then, regarding the quality and quantity of the produced waste water and the amount of required treatment, the final design of wastewater treatment plant will be prepared.

Industrial dairy farms are considered as one of the most polluting industries. For example, in some cases, the amount of COD (one of the parameters of pollution) in waste water is more than 35,000 ppm, while the standard value by the Environmental Organization is 100 ppm. Also, the amount of particles may reach 10,000 ppm, while the standard value is 200 ppm. So, this industry is in high demand of establishing wastewater treatment plants. However, it should be noticed that some equipment used for separating manure and water (separators) substantially change the physical characteristics of waste water in dairy farms. So, the waste water is categorized as a special one, for which innovative treatment methods are required.    

The place for water usage and production of waste water in dairy farms:

Regarding the place for water usage in industrial dairy farms, waste water is produced in different qualities and quantities. Considering the way livestock manure is collected, main uses of water in dairy farms are categorized as below:

·         Drinking water for livestock

·         Water for washing the milking system

·         Water for fogger system

·         Water for washing calf boxes and maternity area

·         Water for washing animal stalls and water troughs

Water used in these areas and the wastewater of dairy farms should be refined in treatment systems, in accordance with regulations of Iran Environmental Organization, in order to be used for washing livestock housing  and for agricultural products.

Now, Mapta Company is ready to implement waste water treatment plants and biogas installations in dairy farms throughout the country and to offer technical services hereto.


Increase in volume of municipal wastes, problems of their disposal, lack of appropriate land for waste burial and environmental concerns, has led to the approach of incineration, in a way that since 2010 burial of flammable wastes in the European Union countries has been prohibited and the only agreed method in these countries is the use of incinerator power plants.

For the first time in 1870, England manufactured the first incinerator factory. Then, other countries began to use the incineration produced energy for different purposes. In our country, based upon the evaluations, large amount of solid wastes cause problems for municipalities and healthcare centers in addition to negative environmental effects. Incinerator power plant is on one hand an efficient method for hygienic waste disposal and on the other hand a power generator.

Waste as a fuel

Regarding the diversity of municipal solid waste, waste-to-energy plants should be designed carefully in order to manage wide range of waste inputs. Energy recovery from municipal solid waste is based on the heating value of certain materials.

Important aspects of waste combustion 

The first objective of waste combustion plant is to burn the waste, environmentally safe i.e. the output gas must be completely burned, the minimum amount of ash should be remained and production of soil, water and air pollutants must be prevented as much as possible. The second purpose, which is more important than the first one, is maximum energy recycling.

Financial aspect

Modern waste-to-energy plants have been manufactured since 30 years ago and have been profitable for themselves and the society. Thus, investment in plants requires fundamental and constant basis in addition to optimum amount of investment if they are meant to perform efficiently in society.

Available technologies

Recently, by the development of science and technology, municipal solid waste is not only a problem, but also a valuable source used for energy production. Previously, wastes were burned only to reduce landfill sites and their removal from human environment while their heating energy was lost and emitted gases were polluting the air. But today, wastes are burned in modern plants under specific supervision and produced energies (thermal and electrical) are used. In other words, incineration is a complicated processing on waste materials, the objective of which can be a means for recycling chemical and mineral materials and waste energy.


Waste-To-Energy Methods:

1)    Biochemical- Chemical methods

Biochemical and chemical waste-to-energy methods include Biogas, Biodiesel and Chemical procedures.

2)    Thermochemical methods

·         Pyrolysis

·         Gasification

·         RDF

·         Plasma

·         Combustion

Combustion Systems

Different wastes are processed in various combustion systems. Combustion systems include moving grate incinerators, rotary kilns, fluidized bed incinerators and other technologies, each of which is employed to process a certain type of waste material.

1.2) Moving Grate Incinerators

Different stages in Moving Grate Incinerators:  

·         Transferring the material into furnace

·         Adding fuel for soaking the material

·         Stabilizing the incineration position in the compartment by controlling the furnace performance.

Different kinds of Moving Grate Incinerators:

·         Kinetic Grates

In this system, the grate is located across the furnace so that intermittent rows are rotated or moved mechanically in order to create driving movements to push and mix the waste.

·        Reciprocating Grates

This model includes the parts which are located in pair and on each other across the furnace. Intermittent grate parts move back and forth while adjacent parts remain constant. Waste materials are rolled to fixed parts, are mixed together and are moved alongside the grate. Different kinds of this system exist and modern installations use reciprocating grates for municipal wastes.

2.2) Rotary Kilns

Rotary kilns are very resistant in which almost every waste material, regardless of type and composition can be burned. Usually this technology is applied for clinical wastes (mostly hazardous clinical wastes).

2.3) Fluidized Beds

Fluidized bed incinerators are widely used for burning crashed wastes like RDF and sewage sludge. Fluidized bed incinerator is a linear combustion compartment in vertical cylindrical shape. At the bottom, there is a bed of neural stuff (like sand or ash) which is floating over a grate or distributing surface by air. The waste enters continuously into the fluidized sand bed from the top or side parts. The preheated air enters the combustion compartment through the bottom surface and creates a fluidized sand bed in the combustion compartment. The waste enters the reactor by a pump, a star-shape feeder or a carrier with screwed pipe. Drying, evaporation, ignition and combustion occur in fluidized bed.    

2.4) Spreader- Stoker Furnace

This system can be considered as an intermediate between grate and fluidized bed incinerators. Wastes (such as RDF and sludge) are blown pneumatically (with air force) into furnace at different altitudes. Tiny particles take part directly in the incineration process, while larger ones are falling on mobile grate and are moved at the opposite direction of waste injection. Very large particles are distributed at farther distances and remain more on the grate; therefore, the incineration process is completed.